Chief Left Hand: Southern Arapaho

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Chief Left Hand: Southern Arapaho

About the encyclopedia Terms of use Using the encyclopedia. Books Published More Bibliography Frederick W. Copyright and Terms of Use No part of this site may be construed as in the public domain. This wave of intruders and the Sand Creek Massacre sparked a war with the United States that lasted from to At the end of the war, President Grant sent a peace commission to the allied tribes. The Northern Arapaho had taken heavy losses in the war and eventually agreed to move to reservations with either the Sioux in the north or the Southern Arapaho in Oklahoma.

The Northern Arapaho still wanted their own reservation separate from the Sioux. In order to further this cause, the tribe forged new alliances. Tribal members served as scouts for the army by The tribe also managed to make temporary peace with their longtime rivals, the Shoshone, who had a reservation in Wyoming.

Chief Left Hand, Arapaho Indian leader

Army officers attempted to help the Northern Arapaho gain their own reservation in Wyoming, and much of the tribe was temporarily living on the Shoshone reservation. Intermittent conflicts with settlers and miners occurred as they intruded into Indian lands on the Popoagie and Sweetwater Rivers. Black Bear was killed by a group of settlers in an ambush.


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At this point there was not enough game to hunt, and the tribe became highly dependent on rations from the military. Medicine Man died in and was succeeded by Black Coal. The horses were killed or stolen, tipis destroyed, and winter rations taken. Following the attack, the Northern Arapaho were absolutely reliant on rations, but they received only enough rations to last four days once every ten days. Exposure and illnesses devastated the tribe between and The tribe was particularly vulnerable to exploitation. With winter rapidly approaching, they used this to their advantage to demand the cession of the Black Hills region of Wyoming and South Dakota.

The tribes had to sign the agreement or face certain death. Business Source Premier. Consumer Health Complete.

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Chief Left Hand: Southern Arapaho

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