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When taxing a inability, know make this difference's orientation: RePEc: aei: flight. For 3 incentives operating this discussion, or to report its corporations, nostalgia, own, developed or new history, use: Dave Adams, CIO. Although developed nations generally have greater relative capacity to manage the risks of climate change, such capacity does not necessarily translate into the implementation of adaptation and mitigation options.
Improving institutions as well as enhancing coordination and cooperation in governance can help overcome regional constraints associated with mitigation, adaptation and disaster risk reduction very high confidence. Despite the presence of a wide array of multilateral, national and sub-national institutions focused on adaptation and mitigation, global GHG emissions continue to increase and identified adaptation needs have not been adequately addressed. The implementation of effective adaptation and mitigation options may necessitate new institutions and institutional arrangements that span multiple scales medium confidence Table 4.
Table 4. Adaptation options exist in all sectors, but their context for implementation and potential to reduce climate-related risks differs across sectors and regions. Some adaptation responses involve significant co-benefits, synergies and trade-offs. Increasing climate change will increase challenges for many adaptation options.
People, governments and the private sector are starting to adapt to a changing climate. Since the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report AR4 , understanding of response options has increased, with improved knowledge of their benefits, costs and links to sustainable development. Adaptation can take a variety of approaches depending on its context in vulnerability reduction, disaster risk management or proactive adaptation planning.
There is increasing recognition of the value of social including local and indigenous , institutional, and ecosystem-based measures and of the extent of constraints to adaptation. Effective strategies and actions consider the potential for co-benefits and opportunities within wider strategic goals and development plans. These approaches should be considered overlapping rather than discrete, and they are often pursued simultaneously. Examples are presented in no specific order and can be relevant to more than one category.
Opportunities to enable adaptation planning and implementation exist in all sectors and regions, with diverse potential and approaches depending on context. The need for adaptation along with associated challenges is expected to increase with climate change very high confidence. Examples of key adaptation approaches for particular sectors, including constraints and limits, are summarized below. Adaptive water management techniques, including scenario planning, learning-based approaches and flexible and low-regret solutions, can help adjust to uncertain hydrological changes due to climate change and their impacts limited evidence, high agreement.
Strategies include adopting integrated water management, augmenting supply, reducing the mismatch between water supply and demand, reducing non-climate stressors, strengthening institutional capacities and adopting more water-efficient technologies and water-saving strategies. Management actions can reduce but not eliminate risks of impacts to terrestrial and freshwater ecosystems due to climate change high confidence. Actions include maintenance of genetic diversity, assisted species migration and dispersal, manipulation of disturbance regimes e.
Management options that reduce non-climatic stressors, such as habitat modification, overexploitation, pollution and invasive species, increase the inherent capacity of ecosystems and their species to adapt to a changing climate. Other options include improving early warning systems and associated response systems. Enhanced connectivity of vulnerable ecosystems may also assist autonomous adaptation. Translocation of species is controversial and is expected to become less feasible where whole ecosystems are at risk.
Adaptation options for agriculture include technological responses, enhancing smallholder access to credit and other critical production resources, strengthening institutions at local to regional levels and improving market access through trade reform medium confidence. Responses to decreased food production and quality include: developing new crop varieties adapted to changes in CO 2 , temperature, and drought; enhancing the capacity for climate risk management; and offsetting economic impacts of land use change.
Improving financial support and investing in the production of small-scale farms can also provide benefits. Expanding agricultural markets and improving the predictability and reliability of the world trading system could result in reduced market volatility and help manage food supply shortages caused by climate change. Urban adaptation benefits from effective multi-level governance, alignment of policies and incentives, strengthened local government and community adaptation capacity, synergies with the private sector and appropriate financing and institutional development medium confidence.
Enhancing the capacity of low-income groups and vulnerable communities and their partnerships with local governments can also be an effective urban climate adaptation strategy. Examples of adaptation mechanisms include large-scale public-private risk reduction initiatives and economic diversification and government insurance for the non-diversifiable portion of risk.
In some locations, especially at the upper end of projected climate changes, responses could also require transformational changes such as managed retreat. Adaptation options that focus on strengthening existing delivery systems and institutions, as well as insurance and social protection strategies, can improve health, security and livelihoods in the near term high confidence. The most effective vulnerability reduction measures for health in the near term are programmes that implement and improve basic public health measures such as provision of clean water and sanitation, secure essential health care including vaccination and child health services, increase capacity for disaster preparedness and response and alleviate poverty very high confidence.
Options to address heat related mortality include health warning systems linked to response strategies, urban planning and improvements to the built environment to reduce heat stress. Robust institutions can manage many transboundary impacts of climate change to reduce risk of conflicts over shared natural resources. Insurance programmes, social protection measures and disaster risk management may enhance long-term livelihood resilience among the poor and marginalized people, if policies address multi-dimensional poverty. Significant co-benefits, synergies and trade-offs exist between adaptation and mitigation and among different adaptation responses; interactions occur both within and across regions and sectors very high confidence.
For example, investments in crop varieties adapted to climate change can increase the capacity to cope with drought, and public health measures to address vector-borne diseases can enhance the capacity of health systems to address other challenges. Similarly, locating infrastructure away from low-lying coastal areas helps settlements and ecosystems adapt to sea level rise while also protecting against tsunamis.
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For example, while protection of ecosystems can assist adaptation to climate change and enhance carbon storage, increased use of air conditioning to maintain thermal comfort in buildings or the use of desalination to enhance water resource security can increase energy demand, and therefore, GHG emissions.
Mitigation options are available in every major sector. Mitigation can be more cost-effective if using an integrated approach that combines measures to reduce energy use and the greenhouse gas intensity of end-use sectors, decarbonize energy supply, reduce net emissions and enhance carbon sinks in land-based sectors. A broad range of sectoral mitigation options is available that can reduce GHG emission intensity, improve energy intensity through enhancements of technology, behaviour, production and resource efficiency and enable structural changes or changes in activity.
In addition, direct options in agriculture, forestry and other land use AFOLU involve reducing CO 2 emissions by reducing deforestation, forest degradation and forest fires; storing carbon in terrestrial systems for example, through afforestation ; and providing bioenergy feedstocks. An overview of sectoral mitigation options and potentials is provided in Table 4. Figure 4. In addition, for the baseline scenarios, the sum of direct and indirect emissions from the energy end-use sectors transport, buildings and industry is also shown dark yellow background.
Mitigation scenarios show direct emissions only. However, mitigation in the end-use sectors leads also to indirect emissions reductions in the upstream energy supply sector. Direct emissions of the end-use sectors thus do not include the emission reduction potential at the supply-side due to, for example, reduced electricity demand.
Note that for calculating the indirect emissions only electricity emissions are allocated from energy supply to end-use sectors. The numbers at the bottom of the graphs refer to the number of scenarios included in the range, which differs across sectors and time due to different sectoral resolution and time horizon of models. Note that many models cannot reach concentrations of about ppm CO 2 -eq by in the absence of CCS, resulting in a low number of scenarios for the right panel.
Negative emissions in the electricity sector are due to the application of bioenergy with carbon dioxide capture and storage BECCS. Well-designed systemic and cross-sectoral mitigation strategies are more cost-effective in cutting emissions than a focus on individual technologies and sectors with efforts in one sector affecting the need for mitigation in others medium confidence. While rapid decarbonization of energy supply generally entails more flexibility for end-use and AFOLU sectors, stronger demand reductions lessen the mitigation challenge for the supply side of the energy system Figures 4.
Decarbonizing i. In most integrated modelling scenarios, decarbonization happens more rapidly in electricity generation than in the industry, buildings and transport sectors. Efficiency enhancements and behavioural changes, in order to reduce energy demand compared to baseline scenarios without compromising development, are a key mitigation strategy in scenarios reaching atmospheric CO 2 -eq concentrations of about to about ppm by robust evidence, high agreement.
Emissions can be substantially lowered through changes in consumption patterns e. A number of options including monetary and non-monetary incentives as well as information measures may facilitate behavioural changes.
Adaptation and Mitigation
For each technology, the median, interquartile and full deployment range is displayed. Notes: Scenarios assuming technology restrictions are excluded. Ranges include results from many different integrated models. Multiple scenario results from the same model were averaged to avoid sampling biases. Decarbonization of the energy supply sector i. Among these low-carbon technologies, a growing number of RE technologies have achieved a level of maturity to enable deployment at significant scale since AR4 robust evidence, high agreement and nuclear energy is a mature low-GHG emission source of baseload power, but its share of global electricity generation has been declining since Behaviour, lifestyle and culture have a considerable influence on energy use and associated emissions, with high mitigation potential in some sectors, in particular when complementing technological and structural change medium evidence, medium agreement.
In the building sector, recent advances in technologies, know-how and policies provide opportunities to stabilize or reduce global energy use to about current levels by mid-century. In addition, recent improvements in performance and costs make very low energy construction and retrofits of buildings economically attractive, sometimes even at net negative costs robust evidence, high agreement. In the industry sector, improvements in GHG emission efficiency and in the efficiency of material use, recycling and reuse of materials and products, and overall reductions in product demand e.
Prevalent approaches for promoting energy efficiency in industry include information programmes followed by economic instruments, regulatory approaches and voluntary actions. Important options for mitigation in waste management are waste reduction, followed by re-use, recycling and energy recovery robust evidence, high agreement. The most cost-effective mitigation options in forestry are afforestation, sustainable forest management and reducing deforestation, with large differences in their relative importance across regions.
In agriculture, the most cost-effective mitigation options are cropland management, grazing land management and restoration of organic soils medium evidence, high agreement. Bioenergy can play a critical role for mitigation, but there are issues to consider, such as the sustainability of practices and the efficiency of bioenergy systems robust evidence, medium agreement.
On the other hand, policies towards other societal goals can influence the achievement of mitigation and adaptation objectives. These influences can be substantial, although sometimes difficult to quantify, especially in welfare terms. Overall, the potential for co-benefits for energy end-use measures outweigh the potential for adverse side effects, whereas the evidence suggests this may not be the case for all energy supply and AFOLU measures.
Effective adaptation and mitigation responses will depend on policies and measures across multiple scales: international, regional, national and sub-national. Policies across all scales supporting technology development, diffusion and transfer, as well as finance for responses to climate change, can complement and enhance the effectiveness of policies that directly promote adaptation and mitigation.
Because climate change has the characteristics of a collective action problem at the global scale see 3. Cooperative responses, including international cooperation, are therefore required to effectively mitigate GHG emissions and address other climate change issues. While adaptation focuses primarily on local to national scale outcomes, its effectiveness can be enhanced through coordination across governance scales, including international cooperation. In fact, international cooperation has helped to facilitate the creation of adaptation strategies, plans, and actions at national, sub-national, and local levels.
A variety of climate policy instruments have been employed, and even more could be employed, at international and regional levels to address mitigation and to support and promote adaptation at national and sub-national scales. Evidence suggests that outcomes seen as equitable can lead to more effective cooperation. Other institutions organized at different levels of governance have resulted in diversifying international climate change cooperation. Existing and proposed international climate change cooperation arrangements vary in their focus and degree of centralization and coordination.
Co-benefits and adverse side effects, and their overall positive or negative effect, all depend on local circumstances as well as on the implementation practice, pace and scale. The uncertainty qualifiers between brackets denote the level of evidence and agreement on the respective effect. The figure represents a compilation of existing and possible forms of international cooperation, based upon a survey of published research, but is not intended to be exhaustive of existing or potential policy architectures, nor is it intended to be prescriptive.
Examples in orange are existing agreements. Examples in blue are structures for agreements proposed in the literature. The width of individual boxes indicates the range of possible degrees of centralization for a particular agreement. The degree of centralization indicates the authority an agreement confers on an international institution, not the process of negotiating the agreement. While a number of new institutions are focused on adaptation funding and coordination, adaptation has historically received less attention than mitigation in international climate policy robust evidence, medium agreement.
Inclusion of adaptation is increasingly important to reduce the risk from climate change impacts and may engage a greater number of countries. The Kyoto Protocol offers lessons towards achieving the ultimate objective of the UNFCCC, particularly with respect to participation, implementation, flexibility mechanisms, and environmental effectiveness medium evidence, low agreement. However, its environmental effectiveness has been questioned by some, particularly in regard to its early years, due to concerns about the additionality of projects that is, whether projects bring about emissions that are different from business as usual BAU circumstances , the validity of baselines, and the possibility of emissions leakage medium evidence, medium agreement.
Such concerns about additionality are common to any emission-reduction-credit offset program, and are not specific to the CDM. Due to market forces, the majority of single CDM projects have been concentrated in a limited number of countries, while Programmes of Activities, though less frequent, have been more evenly distributed.
Several conceptual models for effort-sharing have been identified in research.
mail.botanix.co.il/ghosts-and-family-legendsannotated.php Policy linkages among regional, national and sub-national climate policies offer potential climate change mitigation benefits medium evidence, medium agreement. Linkages have been established between carbon markets and in principle could also be established between and among a heterogeneous set of policy instruments including non-market-based policies, such as performance standards.
Potential advantages include lower mitigation costs, decreased emission leakage and increased market liquidity. Regional initiatives between national and global scales are being developed and implemented, but their impact on global mitigation has been limited to date medium confidence. International cooperation for supporting adaptation planning and implementation has assisted in the creation of adaptation strategies, plans and actions at national, sub-national and local levels high confidence.
For example, a range of multilateral and regionally targeted funding mechanisms have been established for adaptation; UN agencies, international development organizations and non-governmental organisations NGOs have provided information, methodologies and guidelines; and global and regional initiatives supported and promoted the creation of national adaptation strategies in both developing and developed countries.
Closer integration of disaster risk reduction and climate change adaptation at the international level, and the mainstreaming of both into international development assistance, may foster greater efficiency in the use of resources and capacity. However, stronger efforts at the international level do not necessarily lead to substantive and rapid results at the local level. Adaptation experience is accumulating across regions in the public and private sector and within communities high confidence. Adaptation options adopted to date see Table 4.
Most assessments of adaptation have been restricted to impacts, vulnerability and adaptation planning, with very few assessing the processes of implementation or the effects of adaptation actions medium evidence, high agreement. National governments play key roles in adaptation planning and implementation robust evidence, high agreement. There has been substantial progress since the AR4 in the development of national adaptation strategies and plans. National governments can coordinate adaptation efforts of local and sub-national governments, for example by protecting vulnerable groups, by supporting economic diversification, and by providing information, policy and legal frameworks and financial support.
While local government and the private sector have different functions, which vary regionally, they are increasingly recognized as critical to progress in adaptation, given their roles in scaling up adaptation of communities, households and civil society and in managing risk information and financing medium evidence , high agreement. There is a significant increase in the number of planned adaptation responses at the local level in rural and urban communities of developed and developing countries since the AR4. However, local councils and planners are often confronted by the complexity of adaptation without adequate access to guiding information or data on local vulnerabilities and potential impacts.
Steps for mainstreaming adaptation into local decision-making have been identified but challenges remain in their implementation. Hence, scholars stress the important role of linkages with national and sub-national levels of government as well as partnerships among public, civic and private sectors in implementing local adaptation responses. Institutional dimensions of adaptation governance, including the integration of adaptation into planning and decision-making, play a key role in promoting the transition from planning to implementation of adaptation robust evidence, high agreement.
The most commonly emphasized institutional barriers or enablers for adaptation planning and implementation are: 1 multilevel institutional co-ordination between different political and administrative levels in society; 2 key actors, advocates and champions initiating, mainstreaming and sustaining momentum for climate adaptation; 3 horizontal interplay between sectors, actors and policies operating at similar administrative levels; 4 political dimensions in planning and implementation; and 5 coordination between formal governmental, administrative agencies and private sectors and stakeholders to increase efficiency, representation and support for climate adaptation measures.
Existing and emerging economic instruments can foster adaptation by providing incentives for anticipating and reducing impacts medium confidence. Instruments include public-private finance partnerships, loans, payments for environmental services, improved resource pricing, charges and subsidies, norms and regulations and risk sharing and transfer mechanisms. Risk financing mechanisms in the public and private sector, such as insurance and risk pools, can contribute to increasing resilience, but without attention to major design challenges, they can also provide disincentives, cause market failure and decrease equity.
Governments often play key roles as regulators, providers or insurers of last resort. However, there has not yet been a substantial deviation in global emissions from the past trend. These plans and strategies are in their early stages of development and implementation in many countries, making it difficult to assess their aggregate impact on future global emissions medium evidence, high agreement. Since AR4, there has been an increased focus on policies designed to integrate multiple objectives, increase co-benefits and reduce adverse side effects high confidence.
Governments often explicitly reference co-benefits in climate and sectoral plans and strategies. Sector-specific policies have been more widely used than economy-wide policies Table 4. Although most economic theory suggests that economy-wide policies for mitigation would be more cost-effective than sector-specific policies, administrative and political barriers may make economy-wide policies harder to design and implement than sector-specific policies.
The latter may be better suited to address barriers or market failures specific to certain sectors and may be bundled in packages of complementary policies. In principle, mechanisms that set a carbon price, including cap and trade systems and carbon taxes, can achieve mitigation in a cost-effective way, but have been implemented with diverse effects due in part to national circumstances as well as policy design. The short-run environmental effects of cap and trade systems have been limited as a result of loose caps or caps that have not proved to be constraining limited evidence, medium agreement.
In some countries, tax-based policies specifically aimed at reducing GHG emissions—alongside technology and other policies—have helped to weaken the link between GHG emissions and gross domestic product GDP high confidence. In addition, in a large group of countries, fuel taxes although not necessarily designed for the purpose of mitigation have had effects that are akin to sectoral carbon taxes robust evidence, medium agreement.
This illustrates the general principle that mitigation policies that raise government revenue generally have lower social costs than approaches which do not. Economic instruments in the form of subsidies may be applied across sectors, and include a variety of policy designs, such as tax rebates or exemptions, grants, loans and credit lines. An increasing number and variety of RE policies including subsidies—motivated by many factors—have driven escalated growth of RE technologies in recent years.
Government policies play a crucial role in accelerating the deployment of RE technologies. Energy access and social and economic development have been the primary drivers in most developing countries whereas secure energy supply and environmental concerns have been most important in developed countries. The reduction of subsidies for GHG-related activities in various sectors can achieve emission reductions, depending on the social and economic context high confidence. While subsidies can affect emissions in many sectors, most of the recent literature has focused on subsidies for fossil fuels.
Since AR4 a small but growing literature based on economy-wide models has projected that complete removal of subsidies to fossil fuels in all countries could result in reductions in global aggregate emissions by mid-century medium evidence, medium agreement. Studies vary in methodology, the type and definition of subsidies and the time frame for phase out considered. In particular, the studies assess the impacts of complete removal of all fossil fuel subsides without seeking to assess which subsidies are wasteful and inefficient, keeping in mind national circumstances.
Regulatory approaches and information measures are widely used and are often environmentally effective medium evidence, medium agreement. Examples of regulatory approaches include energy efficiency standards; examples of information programmes include labelling programmes that can help consumers make better-informed decisions. Mitigation policy could devalue fossil fuel assets and reduce revenues for fossil fuel exporters, but differences between regions and fuels exist high confidence.
Most mitigation scenarios are associated with reduced revenues from coal and oil trade for major exporters. The effect on natural gas export revenues is more uncertain. The availability of CCS would reduce the adverse effect of mitigation on the value of fossil fuel assets medium confidence. Interactions between or among mitigation policies may be synergistic or may have no additive effect on reducing emissions medium evidence, high agreement.
For instance, a carbon tax can have an additive environmental effect to policies such as subsidies for the supply of RE. In either case, additional policies may be needed to address market failures relating to innovation and technology diffusion.